Written by Dr. Arianne Missimer

Photography by Paul Buceta

Hair & Makeup by Monica Kalra

Recent scientific research has unveiled the intriguing gut-brain connection, with the gut microbiome housing trillions of bacteria, making it one of the most diverse ecosystems in the human body. This interplay between the gut and the brain carries significant implications for mental health, particularly regarding depression and anxiety. By understanding and nurturing this vital connection, we pave the way towards better mental health and holistic wellness.

The Gut-Brain Connection: Four Primary Pathways 

The gut-brain connection operates through four major pathways, facilitating intricate communication between the gut and brain and impacting various aspects of mental health and overall well-being.

1. Neurological Pathway      

The vagus nerve, known as the “wandering nerve,” is a major pathway connecting the gut and brain, allowing signals to travel bidirectionally. For example, in response to stress, the brain can send signals through the vagus nerve to the gut, leading to gastrointestinal symptoms. Similarly, the gut can send signals through the vagus nerve to the brain, influencing mood and emotions.

2. Neuroendocrine Pathway

Gut microbes produce and interact with neurotransmitters, chemical messengers for the gut-brain axis. Ninety percent of serotonin, often called the “happy hormone,” is produced in the gut and changes in gut health can influence serotonin levels, potentially impacting brain function and mood. GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid)—also found in the gut—reduces fear and anxiety and dopamine and is associated with the brain’s reward system. It plays a vital role in the gut, potentially affecting depression and anxiety.

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What are you feeding your brain?

The gut and brain communicate through 4 major pathways that impact multiple aspects of mental health and overall well-being.
3. Metabolic Pathway        

The gut microbiome metabolizes dietary fibers, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) like butyrate. By maintaining a diverse gut microbiome through a fiber-rich diet, these beneficial SCFAs support brain health.

4. Immune Pathway          

The gut and brain communicate through the immune system, with the gut housing 70 percent of the immune system. Chronic gut inflammation can lead to a leaky gut, allowing harmful substances such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), into the bloodstream, associated with neuroinflammation, mood disorders, and cognitive decline.

Potential Root Causes of Anxiety and Depression 

Depression is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness and loss of interest, while anxiety causes excessive worry and fear. There’s a significant link between depression and gut dysbiosis, with increased pro-inflammatory and decreased beneficial bacteria, leading to chronic inflammation and worsening depressive symptoms. Dysbiosis can also trigger an overactive stress response, increasing anxiety due to higher cortisol levels. Because the gut influences GABA production, which reduces anxiety, any imbalance can impact our body’s stress response (Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis). 

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Additionally, small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) can lead to nutrient deficiencies needed for mental health and affect neurotransmitter production in the gut-brain axis.

There’s a significant link between depression and gut dysbiosis, with increased pro-inflammatory and decreased beneficial bacteria, leading to chronic inflammation and worsening depressive symptoms. Dysbiosis can also trigger an overactive stress response, increasing anxiety due to higher cortisol levels.

A Recipe for Success: Supporting Gut Health and Mental Well-Being 

Promoting a balanced gut-brain axis and better mental health, proper nutrition, gut-healthy practices, and lifestyle choices are essential:

  • Diaphragmatic breathing before eating promotes “rest and digest,” enhancing digestion and nutrient absorption, while chewing food thoroughly aids in proper digestion and absorption, decreasing the risk of dysbiosis. 
  • Balancing the nervous system with diaphragmatic breathing, sunlight exposure, nature time, and mind-body exercises all support gut-brain health.
  • Exercise enriches gut microflora diversity, while promoting bacteria that protect against colon cancer and gastrointestinal diseases.
  • Probiotic-rich foods (e.g., kefir, sauerkraut, kimchi) aid digestion, support a balanced microbiome, and influence neurotransmitter production and the immune system. Psychobiotics (e.g., lactobacillus, bifidobacterium) have potential mental health benefits. Prebiotic sources (e.g., garlic, onions, bananas, whole grains) nourish these beneficial bacteria.
  • Anti-inflammatory ingredients (e.g., fatty fish, leafy greens, berries, nuts) counter chronic inflammation and maintain gut balance. Omega-3 fats (found in oily fish) increase beneficial gut bacteria and reduce the risk of brain disorders.
  • Fiber-rich foods (e.g., fruits, vegetables, legumes) support gut regularity, foster a diverse gut microbiome, and produce beneficial short-chain fatty acids and polyphenol-rich foods (e.g., cocoa, green tea) enhance healthy gut microbes, and potentially improve cognitive function. 
  • Tryptophan-rich foods (e.g., turkey, eggs) support serotonin production, regulating mood and emotional well-being and tyrosine-rich foods (e.g., meats, fish, almonds) are dopamine precursors.

By understanding the intricate relationship between gut health and mood disorders, we can empower ourselves to take proactive steps toward mental well-being. Including these action-steps into health routines can ultimately foster a recipe for success in managing and improving mental health.


McGuinness, A. J., Davis, J. A., Dawson, S. L., Loughman, A., Collier, F., O'Hely, M.,Jacka, F. N. (2022). A systematic review of gut microbiota composition in observational studies of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry, 27(4), 1920-1935. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01456-3

Nguyen, T. T., Hathaway, H., Kosciolek, T., Knight, R., & Jeste, D. V. (2021). Gut microbiome in serious mental illnesses: A systematic review and critical evaluation. Schizophr Res, 234, 24-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.08.026

Nikolova, V. L., Smith, M. R. B., Hall, L. J., Cleare, A. J., Stone, J. M., & Young, A. H. (2021). Perturbations in Gut Microbiota Composition in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 78(12), 1343-1354. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.2573

Obi-Azuike, C., Ebiai, R., Gibson, T., Hernandez, A., Khan, A., Anugwom, G., . . . Oladunjoye, F. (2023). A systematic review on gut-brain axis aberrations in bipolar disorder and methods of balancing the gut microbiota. Brain Behav, 13(6), e3037. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.3037

Vindegaard, N., Speyer, H., Nordentoft, M., Rasmussen, S., & Benros, M. E. (2021). Gut microbial changes of patients with psychotic and affective disorders: A systematic review. Schizophr Res, 234, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.12.014

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